Android is the most used and popular OS. It helps a business to increase sales, enhance revenues and reach a wider audience.
Every entrepreneur needs to compete with creativity to capture the attention of more potential customers. It is because the ultimate goal of any business is to generate revenue. Further, the evolution of the Android development platform offers entrepreneurs with a cost-effective and scalable opportunity to develop apps. Android OS dominates the mobile app development market. Leveraging the benefits of Android application development is, therefore, a necessity for organizations. It is expected to surge even further in the coming years.
Android is an open source operating system and is mainly popular for Smartphones and Tablets. This operating system is Linux Kernel based. Using Android operating system, the developer develops the functions or programs which can perform basic as well as the advanced type of operations on the Smartphone.
To develop a mobile application, Android developers require some tools and this requirement is satisfied by “Android SDK” which is a set of tools that are used for developing or writing apps. It has a Graphical User Interface which emulates the Android environment. This emulator acts as an actual mobile device on which the developers write their code and then debug/test the same code to check if anything is wrong.
|2||Android 7.0 – 7.1.2||Nougat|
|3||Android 6 – 6.0.1||Marshmallow|
|4||Android 5 – 5.1.1||Lollipop|
|5||Android 4.4 – 4.4.4||Kitkat|
|6||Android 4.1 – 4.3||Jelly Bean|
|7||Android 4.0 – 4.0.4||Ice-cream Sandwich|
Mobile app testing is the testing of applications on a device which mainly focuses on functions and features of the application. And Mobile Testing is the testing of the actual mobile device and focuses on the mobile features like Call, SMS, Contacts, Media Player, inbuilt browsers etc.
Java is the widely used language for Android development. It also supports C/C++ and when used with Android SDK, it improves the performance speed too.
It is an open-source and platform independent. It supports various technologies like Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc
Android architecture is in the form of software stack components. The below diagram describes the different layers in the Android architecture. Linux Kernel: Linux Kernel is placed at the bottom of the software stack and is the foundation of the Android architecture. Using Linux kernel, Android provides a connection between the other layers of the software. It helps to develop drivers like the keypad, display, audio for device manufacture etc. Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL): HAL provides an interface between device drivers and API framework. It consists of library modules which are specific to the hardware component. Android Runtime: Linux kernel provides multi-tasking execution environment so that multiple processes can execute each process runs on its own instance of Android Runtime (ART). Android has core runtime libraries like Dalvik VM specific libraries, Java Interoperability Libraries, Android Libraries and C/C++ libraries.
With good ROI high level of security, and easy testing, iOS app can give your business a competitive edge
iOS is easy to use interface. Apple’s iPhone becomes the dream of many smartphone users, providing high customer service and become a market leader for offering unmatched devices. You can attract your Apple users easily if an application will be created on synchronized environment Apple’s platform. These special flexible User Interface of the features of the iOS app can make your business application more desirable and boost up their sales and earn maximum benefits.
|1||Type of operating system :||Apple proprietary based on Macintosh OS X|
|2||OS fragmentation :||Tightly integrated with Apple devices|
|3||Security :||Heightened security guaranteed|
SBJson framework is supported by iOS. It is a JSON parser and generator for Objective-C (Objective-C is the primary programming language you use when writing software for OS X and iOS. It’s a superset of the C programming language and provides object-oriented capabilities and a dynamic runtime). SBJson provides flexible APIs and additional control that makes JSON handling easy.
HTTP live streams that have their media encrypted will not be recorded by QuickTime Player on Yosemite while screen recording. These will black out in the recording. HTTP live streaming: It sends live and on‐demand audio and video to iPhone, iPad, Mac, Apple TV, and PC with HTTP live streaming (HLS) technology from Apple. Using the same protocol that powers the web, HLS lets you deploy content using ordinary web servers and content delivery networks. HLS is designed for reliability and dynamically adapts to network conditions by optimizing playback for the available speed of wired and wireless connections.
The UIKit framework is used to develop the application’s user interface. The UIKit framework provides event handling, drawing model, windows, views, and controls, specifically designed for a touch-screen interface. The UIKit framework (UIKit.framework) provides the crucial infrastructure needed to construct and manage iOS apps. This framework provides: [Text Wrapping Break] -> Window and view architecture to manage an app’s user interface[Text Wrapping Break] -> Event handling infrastructure to respond to user input[Text Wrapping Break] -> An app model to drive the main run loop and interact with the system In addition to the core app behaviors, UIKit provides support for the following features:
- A view controller model to encapsulate the contents of user interface
- Support for handling touch and motion-based events
- Support for a document model that includes iCloud integration
- Graphics and windowing support, including support for external displays
- Support for managing the app’s foreground and background execution
- Printing support
- Support for customizing the appearance of standard UIKit controls
- Support for text and web content
- Cut, copy, and paste support
- Support for animating user-interface content
- Integration with other apps on the system through URL schemesand framework interfaces
- Accessibility support for disabled users
- Support for the Apple Push Notification service
- Local notification scheduling and delivery
- PDF creation
- Support for using custom input views that behave like the system keyboard
- Support for creating custom text views that interact with the system keyboard
- Support for sharing content through email, Twitter, Facebook, and other services
Properties specified as atomic are guaranteed to always return a fully initialized object. This also happens to be the default state for synthesized properties. While it’s a good practice to specify atomic properties to remove the potential for confusion, if you leave it off, the properties will still be atomic. This guarantee of atomic properties comes at the cost of performance. However, if you have a property for which you know that retrieving an uninitialized value is not a risk (e.g., if all access to the property is already synchronized via other means), then setting it to non-atomic can boost the performance.
A managed object context (represented by an instance of NSManagedObjectContext) is a temporary ‘scratchpad’ in an application for a (presumably) related collection of objects. These objects collectively represent an internally consistent view of one or more persistent stores. A single managed object instance exists in one and only one context, but multiple copies of an object can exist in different contexts. The key functions of managed object context include the following: Life-cycle management : Here, the context provides validation, inverse relationship handling, and undo/redo. Notifications : It refers to context posts’ notifications at various points that can be optionally monitored elsewhere in your application. Concurrency : Here, the Core Data uses thread (or serialized queue) confinement to protect managed objects and managed object contexts.
Unnamed Category has fallen out of favor now that @protocol has been extended to support @optional methods. A class extension – @interface Foo() is designed to allow you to declare additional private API—SPI or system programming interface - that is used to implement the class innards. This typically appears at the top of the .m file. Any methods/properties declared in the class extension must be implemented in the @implementation, just like the methods/properties found in the public @interface. Class extensions can also be used to re-declare a publicly read-only @property as readwrite prior to @synthesize’ing the accessors.
No, there is nothing called a private method in Object-C programming. If a method is defined in .m only, then it becomes protected; if in .h, it is public. If you really want a private method, then you need to add a local category/unnamed category/class extension in the class, and add the method in the category and define it in the class.m.
Eliminate the platform dependency with an Ionic app.
Ionic is an open-source platform which provides cross-platform mobile application development. The Advantages of using Ionic application development framework are as follows:
- Cross-platform app development : The ionic framework supports Android 4.1 and up, iOS 7 and up. Ionic also supports the UWP (Universal Windows Platform) for developing Windows 10 apps. Ionic helps with building applications quickly and with expertise
- User Interface : Themes and components of Ionic are highly customizable. The ionic platform allows components to adapt the platform on which application is running.
- Built on AngularJS : Ionic uses AngularJS to provide many functionalities to the developers. AngularJS is a widely used framework by designers. Use of AngularJS allows Ionic to provide a robust structure that makes the code more manageable. AngularJS with the assistance of the Ionic structure allows development of hybrid applications.
- Performance : Using Ionic with native mobile app code in PhoneGap (Apache Cordova) allows for higher performance compared to hybrid applications. AngularJS allows Ionic to rely on native hardware acceleration. Ionic uses CSS transitions as a way to leverage the GPU and maximize available processor time.
- Cordova Plugins : The ionic framework utilizes Cordova plugins to help designers in accessing different components. Ionic uses Cordova plugin to access features like Camera, GPS, Flashlight and others. Mobile app developers can utilize these modules to build their application.
Run ionic.version command in console of your web browser to check installed version of IONIC Framework.
|IONIC POLYMERIZATION||FREE-RADICAL IONIC|
|Ionic polymerization is a chain polymerization that has ions and ion pairs in the centre. The initiation of ionic polymerization consumes very less activation energy than radical polymerization. It is an alternative to free radical polymerization.||Free radical polymerizations are those polymerizations that are formed by adding free-radical building blocks. Free radical polymerization uses initiators and co initiators. It is the only way to obtain different types of polymers and material composites.|
The easy way to store key or values and JSON objects is known as storage in Ionic Framework. In this various storage, engines are used. While on the web application, the storage will tend to use IndexedDB, WebSQL, and localstorage. Various types of storage are available in ionic framework. Some of them are –
- HTML5 local storage
- Cookie and session storage
Some of the following could not be achieved effectively using web frameworks: Access to platform-specific UI components, like maps, date pickers, switches, and navigation stacks. Native mobile gesture recognizers Complex and sophisticated threading models that help parallelize work onto multiple threads.
The Framework For Future Ready Mobile Applications
- Develop apps faster Instead of recompiling
- Reload app instantly
- With Hot Reloading, run new code while retaining application state.
- React Native uses the same fundamental UI building blocks as regular iOS and Android apps.
- React Native combines smoothly with components written in Objective-C, Java, or Swift.
- It's also easy to build part of the app in React Native, and part of the app using the native code directly
One of the most important things about React Native is that you can reuse the code that you built for different operating systems (iOS, Android). It means working in one framework for multiple platforms. It’s a fast growing framework, too - over 2 years ago we predicted that soon it would be possible to use React Native without touching any native code, and now it’s more true than ever.
React Native is not a different version of React. React Native uses React. Essentially, React Native is a custom renderer for React, just like ReactDOM is for Web. Apart from transforming React code to work on iOS and Android, React Native also gives access to the features that these platforms offer.
Most of the time when developing a React Native project, we write React code, which does not really differ from the code known from React for Web, but we should be aware of the unique properties of mobile platforms – some things might not be that obvious. React developers are not React Native developers by default. That said, we can transform React developers into React Native developers in a short period of time by giving them an opportunity to gain experience in React Native.
Most of the React code for Web relies on features available in Web browsers, so it will not work on mobile and vice versa – React Native code relies on the features available on a given mobile platform. The good news is that we can still reuse some code between the mobile and web apps, and the ability to reuse the code will improve in the future.